DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINOLOGY, LAW AND SOCIETY

2340 Social Ecology II: (949) 824-5575
http://cls.soceco.uci.edu/
Simon A. Cole, Department Chair

Faculty / Undergraduate Program / Graduate Program / Courses

Undergraduate Program

The Department of Criminology, Law and Society focuses on the problem of crime and on understanding the social, cultural, political, and economic forces that interact with the law. Basic courses present overviews of American legal systems with particular emphasis on criminal and juvenile justice, forms of criminal behavior, the role of law in understanding social and psychological phenomena, and the applications of sociological theory in understanding law and legal systems. Subsequent course work provides a deeper understanding of the causes and consequences of crime, criminal justice policy, and socio-legal theory. In addition, substantive areas of law are introduced.

Students are provided with opportunities to become acquainted with the varieties of behavior that society chooses to control or regulate, the methods and institutions used to achieve that control or regulation, and the approaches aimed specifically at altering unacceptable behavior. In addition, there is provision for students to use their increasing knowledge of the law, its procedures, and institutions to enhance their understanding of the social sciences.

The course of study provides excellent preparation for law school and for graduate study in sociology, criminology, and criminal justice. Careers for students who terminate their University education at the baccalaureate level may be developed through placements in criminal justice and regulatory agencies, in organizations determining public policy, and in programs that deliver services to people who have difficulties with some aspect of the legal system.

Students are strongly encouraged to select electives in a variety of departments. Courses in areas such as Psychology, Sociology, Economics, and Political Science can provide a further context for the understanding of crime, law, and criminal justice, while courses in areas such as art history, theater, and music can enhance the quality of the student's entire life.

Field study placements are available in police departments, public defenders' offices, probation and parole agencies, the Orange County District Attorney's Office, the State juvenile detention system, the Orange County Victim/Witness Assistance Program, juvenile shelters, legislative offices, and in private legal firms.

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE B.A. DEGREE IN CRIMINOLOGY, LAW AND SOCIETY

University Requirements: See pages 54-61.

School Requirements: See page 490.

Departmental Requirements

Ten courses (40 units) as specified below:

A.   Three upper-division required courses (12 units); students must select one course from each of the following three groups: (1) The Legal System, Law and Society, C101, C102, C103, C104, C105; (2) Crime and Criminology, C106, C107, C108, C109, C110; (3) Formal Institutions of Social Control, C111, C112, C113, C114, C115.

B.   Seven upper-division elective courses (28 units) numbered C100-C191. (Courses taken to satisfy requirement A may not also be used to satisfy requirement B.)

Criminology, Law and Society Minor Requirements

Nine courses (36 units): Criminology, Law and Society C7, Social Ecology E8, Psychology and Social Behavior 9, or 11A, B, C, and six upper-division Criminology, Law and Society courses selected from C100-C191.

NOTE: Students pursuing a major in the School of Social Ecology may not use upper-division course work for both school, major, or minor requirements. No overlap is permitted. Social Ecology 198 and 199 may not be applied toward the minor.

Graduate Program

General information about the School of Social Ecology's graduate programs, including admission requirements, career opportunities, and Ph.D. program milestones, appears on pages 491-492. Specific information about the Department of Criminology, Law and Society's graduate program appears below.

M.A.S. IN CRIMINOLOGY, LAW AND SOCIETY

The Master of Advanced Study (M.A.S.) in Criminology, Law and Society, the first online degree program at the University of California, prepares professionals for leadership positions in criminal justice and the legal professions. The curriculum emphasizes theoretical and practical applications central to crime and its control, social policy, and the law. In keeping with one of the main tenets of the School of Social Ecology, students approach topics from a multidisciplinary perspective.

This program is ideally suited for professionals interested in obtaining positions in or currently working in the criminal justice or legal fields and who are seeking a graduate degree for career advancement. The program consists of 52 units of course work completed over a two-year period (six quarters) that includes a required one-week in-residence introductory course scheduled right before the the first fall quarter of instruction. In lieu of a thesis, students are required to take a capstone course in the winter quarter of the second year of study. The M.A.S. is awarded upon completion of 13 courses (52 units).

Ph.D. IN CRIMINOLOGY, LAW AND SOCIETY

The study of crime, institutional responses to illegal behavior, and the interaction of law and society are the foci of the doctoral program in Criminology, Law and Society. Students examine issues related to the etiology of crime, the process of changing criminal behavior, social regulation, the civil justice system, and the social and cultural context of law.

Students gain familiarity with a number of subjects including sentencing; crime rates; modes of modifying criminal behavior; police behavior; white collar and organized crime; policies against hate crimes; behavior of courts, juries, and regulatory agencies; environmental law; immigration lawmaking; Native American justice issues; and the interaction among law, culture, and identity. In general, students are introduced to the leading classical and contemporary issues in criminology, law and society and to ways of understanding them through interdisciplinary research. The program aims to develop theoretical sophistication and to prepare the graduate student for faculty positions at major universities; and for research and administrative work in institutions in the legal system, the criminal justice system, and related organizations.

In addition to the four core courses required of most Ph.D. students (Social Ecology 200, two additional quarters of graduate-level statistics, and one additional approved research methods course), students take five required courses, Research Methods (C201), Criminology: Micro Approaches (C228), Criminology: Macro Approaches (C229), Law and Society I (C239A), and Law and Society II (C239B), and three elective courses in Criminology, Law and Society. These elective courses should be chosen in consultation with the student's faculty advisor. Students become involved in research activities from the earliest stages of their training and complete an independent, supervised research project during the second year of graduate study. Methods of research may include questionnaires and surveys, systematic field observation, computer simulation, legal analyses, and archival research. Students complete a written comprehensive examination during year three, which requires them to demonstrate mastery of major issues in criminology, and law and society. The normative time for advancement to candidacy is four years (three years for students who entered with a master's degree). Students are required to advance to candidacy by the end of fall quarter of their fifth year of study, adjusted for any approved leaves of absence. The fourth and, possibly, fifth years of study are devoted to developing and defending a dissertation proposal and completing dissertation research. The normative time for completion of the Ph.D. is six years, and the maximum time permitted is seven years. (For students who have waived two required courses and the second-year project based upon master's-level work completed at another institution, the time to degree is five years, with a maximum of six years.) All Ph.D. students in the Criminology, Law and Society program are required to pass a final oral defense of the dissertation. Opportunities for field placements in legal and criminal justice settings also are available.

Program in Law and Graduate Studies (J.D./Ph.D.). Highly qualified students interested in combining the study of law and graduate qualifications in Criminology, Law and Society are invited to undertake concurrent degree study under the auspices of UC's Irvine's Program in Law and Graduate Studies (PLGS). Students in this program pursue a coordinated curriculum leading to a J.D. degree from the School of Law in conjunction with a Ph.D. degree in Criminology, Law and Society. Additional information is available from the PLGS Director's office, (949) 824-4158, or by e-mail to plgs@law.uci.edu. A full description of the program, with links to all relevant application information, can be found on page 389 of this Catalogue and at http://www.law.uci.edu/plgs.

Courses in Criminology, Law and Society

(Schedule of Classes designation: Crm/Law)

LOWER-DIVISION

C7 Introduction to Criminology, Law and Society (4). Lecture, three hours. Introduces three interdisciplinary literatures—criminology, socio-legal studies, and justice studies—focusing on theoretical and empirical work addressing law making, law breaking, and justice systems. Criminology, Law and Society, Social Ecology, Urban Studies, and Psychology and Social Behavior majors have first consideration for enrollment. (III)

UPPER-DIVISION

C100 Special Topics in Criminology, Law and Society (4). Lecture, three hours. Special topics courses are offered from time to time. Course content varies with interest of the instructor. Prerequisites: Criminology, Law and Society C7 and, in some cases, consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit as topics vary.

C101 American Law (4). Lecture, three hours. Introduction to substantive and procedural law governing private dispute resolution, including common law (tort, property, contracts), lawsuits (civil procedure), and alternative dispute resolution; emphasis on the socio-legal ramifications of private disputes, particularly the modern tort system and tort reform movement. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C102 Introduction to the Comparative Study of Legal Cultures (4). Lecture, three hours. Traces the anthropological and comparative cultural study of law from the nineteenth century to the present; briefly surveys the diversity of recorded legal cultures and critically examines key concepts which have been used to describe and classify them. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C103 American Legal Thought (4). Lecture, three hours. Evolution of legal thought in socio-historical context from nineteenth century to present; emphasizes the rise and fall of legal classicism and modern socio-legal critiques, including the law and society movement, critical legal studies, feminist legal theory, and critical race studies. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C104 Sociology of Law (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines law creation and law enforcement in their social and political context. Discusses the major theories of law and the modern state, and presents case studies in order to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these theoretical perspectives. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C105 Psychology and the Law (4). Lecture, three hours. Psychological assumptions of American legal system and mental health aspects of provision of criminal justice services. Civil commitment, insanity defense, competence to stand trial, jury selection, eye-witness identification. Use of police, courts, correctional institutions in prevention of behavior disorder. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7 or C101. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior 193E. Criminology, Law and Society, Social Ecology, and Psychology and Social Behavior majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C106 Crime and Public Policy (4). Lecture, three hours. Explores nature and dimensions of crime in America and uses and limits of various strategies to control it. Topics include growth of imprisonment, the problem of domestic violence, the death penalty, gun control, and the potential of crime prevention programs. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C107 Deviance (4). Lecture, three hours. Perspectives on deviance and criminality in behavior, institution, community, and myth. The suitability of contemporary theories of deviant behavior. Same as Sociology 156 and Psychology 177D. Criminology, Law and Society, Social Ecology, Sociology, and Psychology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C108 Criminological Theory (4). Lecture, three hours. Explores the question of crime causation from a number of theoretical perspectives in the social sciences. Schools of thought examined include utilitarianism, positivism, human ecology, social structural approaches, social process (learning) theories, labeling, and radical-critical (political) perspectives. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C109 Juvenile Delinquency (4). Lecture, three hours. Patterns of delinquent behavior, theories that explain behavior, current research aimed at enhancing exploratory power. Attempts to prevent and control delinquency are put in historical perspective. Development of the current juvenile justice system and evolution of modern juvenile law. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior 193B. Criminology, Law and Society, Social Ecology, and Psychology and Social Behavior majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C110 Community Context of Crime (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines the social context of high-crime communities, with special emphasis on the problems of poverty, joblessness, economic inequality, and racial discrimination. Assesses debates on the causes of these problems, and on the most effective policies to combat them. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C111 Theories of Punishment (4). Lecture, three hours. Survey of the various schools of thought regarding formal punishment theory. The purposes of legal sanctions are examined, including those of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, and incapacitation. Considers problems in realizing formal goals of punishment in practice. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C112 Legal Sanctions and Social Control (4). Lecture, three hours. Examination of criminal sanctions as mechanisms of social control. Includes the nature, function, and organization of courts as sanction generating institutions, and problems associated with punishing white-collar and corporate illegalities. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C113 Gender and Social Control (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines the legal system's use of sex as an organizing characteristic, focusing particularly on sameness and difference feminism, and tracing the evolution of equal treatment of men and women in the areas of constitutional rights, employment, education, and military service. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C114 Miscarriages of Justice (4). Lecture, three hours. Systematically describes, explains, and analyzes the causes and consequences of the wrongful accusation, prosecution, incarceration, and sometimes even execution, of the innocent in the American criminal justice system. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C115 Prisons, Punishment, and Corrections (4). Lecture, three hours. A review of how the U.S. punishes and rehabilitates convicted law violators. The conflicts among the major purposes of sentencing—rehabilitation, deterrence, incapacitation—are discussed, as well as the effects of different sanctions on public safety, offender rehabilitation, and justice system costs. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C117 Imprisonment and Reentry (4). Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Offers an overview of imprisonment and reentry in the contemporary United States. Examines the development of the prison in the United States and explores changes in its composition, structure, and purpose over time. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C120 Law and Inequality (4). Lecture, three hours. Various aspects of the law as related to three specific areas of inequality: immigration and immigrants, race, and gender. The role of law as a tool of social reform and limitations of the legal system historically in resolving inequality issues. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C121 Science and Law (4). Lecture, three hours. Explores how the law accommodates scientific knowledge and new technologies. Among the topics are ownership of biological materials, intellectual property in the digital age, and toxic torts. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C122 Constitutional Law (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines the First and Fourteenth Amendments, focusing on freedom of speech and religion, and the incorporation of the Bill of Rights. Specific topics include political, symbolic, offensive, and obscene speech, student speech rights, and the free exercise and disestablishment of religion. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society C122 and Political Science 174A may not both be taken for credit. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C123 Family Law (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines legal issues surrounding marriage, cohabitation, divorce, child custody and support, adoption, and the rights of parents and children in the family context. The findings of social science research are used to illuminate the legal issues. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7 or C101. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior 193F. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C125 Child Development, the Law, and Social Policy (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines how psychology research and practice can inform areas of law and social policy affecting children and adolescents. Topics include education, mental health, reproductive rights, and delinquency. Goals are to evaluate research as well as identify the costs/benefits of current policies. Prerequisites: Psychology and Social Behavior 9 or 11C, or Psychology 7A or 9C, or equivalent; Psychology and Social Behavior 111D or 112D recommended. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior 120D. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C126 Drugs, Crime, and Social Control (4). Lecture, three hours. Drug abuse in the U.S.; the psychopharmacology of various drugs; biological, psychological, and sociological explanations for drug abuse. Policy issues are discussed; students will develop and defend a set of strategies for limiting harm done by drugs and drug laws. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C127 Hate Crimes (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines the causes, manifestations, and consequences of hate crimes and the larger social context within which they occur. The politics and dynamics of intergroup violence born of bigotry and manifested as discrimination; social policy designed to control bias-motivated violence. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C130 Seminar on Gangs (4). Seminar, three hours. An overview of gangs, including the nature and definition of gangs; types of gangs; diversity of membership; theoretical explanations; criminal behavior; drug use and sales; law enforcement responses; gangs in correctional institutions; intervention and prevention strategies; and public policy issues. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C131 Organized Crime and American Society (4). Lecture, three hours. Examination of the phenomenon of American organized crime from a sociological perspective. Explanation of methods by which organized crime is tolerated at various levels of society. Emphasis on ways in which "underworld" interests interact with legitimate economic and political institutions. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C132 Forensic Science, Law, and Society (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines the use of "forensic science" to resolve issues arising in criminal cases including crime scene analysis, DNA testing, fingerprints, trace evidence comparisons, profiling, lie detectors, other forensic techniques; evaluation, statistical characterization, and legal admissibility of evidence; regulation of forensic laboratories. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C133 Homicide and Suicide (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines similarities and differences among homicide and suicide, two major causes of death. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C134 Victimless Crimes (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines major theoretical, empirical, and policy-oriented research related to the design, implementation, and analysis of government intervention, through the criminal sanction, in the spheres of vice and morality. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C136 Forensic Psychology: Advanced Seminar (4). Seminar, three hours. The focus is on the psychology of criminal offending, particularly violent behavior. Examines violence, sexual offending, and mental disorder related to crime with regard to clinical assessment and treatment; mental health services within forensic institutions. Prerequisites: Psychology and Social Behavior 9 or 11C, or Psychology 7A or 9C, or equivalent; Psychology and Social Behavior 102C; Psychology and Social Behavior 178S or Criminology, Law and Society C149, or consent of instructor. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior 156C and Psychology 177F. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C137 Criminal Procedure (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines the law governing arrests (with and without a warrant); police detention; search and seizure; interrogation; use of informers, eavesdropping, wiretapping; examination and identification of suspects. Pretrial motions such as speedy trial and discovery of evidence may be covered. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C139 Police and Change (4). Lecture, three hours. Organizational efforts to modify police conduct are addressed by focusing on the history of policing in the United States including training, education, and the contributions of women. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C142 White-Collar Crime (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines criminal activity in business and corporate enterprise, organizations, and the professions. Theories regarding the causes and control of white-collar and corporate crime are covered as well as the numerous definitions of these terms. Same as Sociology 142. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C144 Criminal Law (4). Lecture, three hours. Deals specifically with the substantive nature of criminal law and its historical development. Focuses on understanding the development of fundamental doctrinal principles upon which criminal law is based, including mens rea, actus reus, homicide, causation, group criminality, and exculpation. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C145 Government Crime (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines the legal, organizational, and political issues involved in the generation and control of government lawlessness. Readings present historical and theoretical perspectives in the abuse of government authority and the ability of the legal system to control such behavior. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C147 Law and Social Change (4). Lecture, three hours. Explores the relationship of law to its social setting by considering both law as a product of social change and law as a source or medium of change. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C148 Geographic Information Systems (4). Lecture, one and one half hours; laboratory, one and one half hours. Basic geographic, cartographic, and GIS concepts including computer representation of physical, political, statistical, and social aspects of space using vector and grid-based maps. Experience with extensive geographic base map files and databases through use of GIS software (ArcView 3.x). Same as Public Health 166. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C149 Violence in Society (4). Lecture, three hours. Current theory and research on aggression; anger and violence as problems in individual and social functioning. Process and functions of anger examined with regard to normal behavior and psychopathology. The determinants, prevalence, and implications of violence in society are analyzed. Prerequisite: Psychology and Social Behavior 9 or 11C, or Psychology 7A or 9C, or equivalent. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior 178S. Criminology, Law and Society, Social Ecology, and Psychology and Social Behavior majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C150 The Legal Profession (4). Lecture, three hours. Role of the legal profession in modern society, the diverse professional roles lawyers play, the American legal profession compared with that of other societies. "Litigation explosion," ethical problems, interactions between lawyers and other professionals, training and socialization of new lawyers. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C151 Cybercrimes, Investigation, Forensics, and Prosecution (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines crimes committed against persons, property, society, and the government in which a computer is used. How these computer crimes are committed, investigated, and ultimately prosecuted. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C152 Interrogation, Confession, and the Law (4). Lecture, three hours. In-depth examination of the social psychology of police interrogation in America, the evolution of American interrogation practices from the nineteenth century to the present, impact of law on police behavior and ideology, causes and consequences of false confessions, possibilities of reform. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior 193D. Criminology, Law and Society, Social Ecology, and Psychology and Social Behavior majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C154 Social Theory and the Law (4). Lecture, three hours. Provides theoretical tools to understand the relationship between law and society. Focuses on the connections between law and discourse, power, space and geography, economic markets, gender, race, class, democratic legitimacy, and the indeterminacy of language. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C156 Cross-Cultural Research on Urban Gangs (4). Lecture, three hours. Taking an urban policy approach, examines the background and contemporary traditions of gangs in several ethnic groups including African-, Asian-, and Mexican-Americans. Cross-cultural exploration of the varied facets of gang life. The major social-control institutions affecting them. Same as Chicano/Latino Studies 153. (VII)

C157 Language in Law and Society (4). Lecture, three hours. Considers the role of language in legal practice and power. Particular attention is paid to linguistic and discourse analytic research that covers topics such as: trial talk, language crimes, law talk in cross-cultural perspectives, and linguistic evidence. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C158 U. S. Law and Native Americans: Colonial Imagery, Native Nationhood (4). Lecture, three hours. Considers U.S. laws governing Native Americans and the way these laws shape and reflect popular conceptions of Native identity. Also surveys the legal practices that Native Nations themselves enact to articulate their sovereign status and identities. (VII)

C159 Employment Law and Society (4). Lecture, three hours. Covers federal and state laws that govern the employer-employee relationship, including "at will" employment; wrongful discharge; sexual harassment; discrimination; "whistle-blowing." Considers political, economic, ideological, and cultural factors that have shaped these laws and caused their evolution over time. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C161 Race, Ethnicity, and Social Control (4). Lecture, three hours. Provides a nuanced, sociological understanding of racial and ethnic group relations in contexts of criminal social control, and how social inequality, social movements, and social change manifest in these relations. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Same as Chicano/Latino Studies 152A. (VII)

C162 Crime Hotspots (4). Lecture, three hours. Criminological theories of local public safety hazards or hotspots are introduced. Spatial statistics are developed for different types of hotspots. Hotspot policing theories are introduced and research on the effectiveness of policing strategies is reviewed.

C163 Ethics and Politics of Justice (4). Lecture, three hours. Provides theoretical perspective on how ethics and politics relate to criminal justice through an introduction to moral philosophy; consideration of specific theories of punishment and justice; and consideration of practical and empirical illustrations of the intersection of ethics, politics, and justice. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C164 Social Control of Delinquency (4). Lecture, three hours. Assumes familiarity with theories of delinquency, the juvenile justice system, and elements of juvenile law. Explores socio-historical origins and evolution of juvenile justice, current research and policy on delinquency prevention and treatment, and future directions of law, policy, and practice. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7; Criminology, Law and Society C109 recommended. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior 193C. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C165 The Death Penalty (4). Lecture, three hours. Examines why the U.S. continues to have a death penalty when so many other countries have abandoned it. Arguments for and against the death penalty are covered. Prerequisite or corequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C167 Crime Measurement (4). Lecture, three hours. The strengths and weaknesses of three crime measures (police reports, victim surveys, and offender self-reports) are illustrated through analyses of research articles. Common measurement problems are analyzed with a focus on reliability and validity.

C170 Federal Law Enforcement (4). Lecture, three hours. The peculiar legal, organizational concerns of the federal system of law enforcement and some of the crimes it is uniquely designed to address—white-collar crime, drug trafficking, racketeering, public corruption. Roles, responsibilities of the FBI, DEA, Customs, other policing agencies. Prerequisites: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society, Social Ecology, and Psychology and Social Behavior majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C171 Latinos and the Law (4). Lecture, three hours; discussion, one hour. Examines a range of theoretical, empirical, and policy approaches to legal issues affecting the Latino population, with emphasis on California. Discusses topics concerning the purpose of law, the creation of law, and the enforcement of law. Same as Chicano/Latino Studies 142. (VII)

C172 Culture Change and the Mexican People (4). Lecture, three hours. Reviews culture contact and colonization, innovation diffusion, acculturation, assimilation, culture conflict and marginality, modernization, urbanization, legal transformations. Mexico and the Southwestern U.S. are reviewed through several centuries to better appreciate the indigenous base of the Mexican people. Same as Chicano/Latino Studies 155. (VII)

C176 Classics in Crime Cinema (4). Lecture, three hours. A multidimensional understanding of crime films and how they shape public thinking about crime and criminals. Criminology, Law, and Society C176 and C20 may not both be taken for credit.

C177 Eyewitness Testimony (4). Lecture, three hours. Faulty eyewitness testimony is a major cause of wrongful convictions. Covers the fast-growing topic of eyewitness testimony and memory for real-world events, both how psychologists study eyewitness capacity, and how the legal system has dealt with eyewitness issues. Prerequisites: Social Ecology 10 and senior standing. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior 193G. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C178 Critical Race Theory (4). Lecture, three hours. Introduction to Critical Race Theory and key American cases on racial inequality. Using this literature, examines the possibilities and pitfalls of legal claims of race, gender, and sexuality discrimination in the age of colorblindness. Open to upper-division students only. Same as African American Studies 157.

C181 Contemporary Legal Issues (4). Lecture, three hours. An in-depth analysis of current legal issues viewed from their political and constitutional perspectives. Issues studied are determined by instructor and student interest. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C185 Criminal Justice System Capacity (4). Lecture, three hours. Examination of "system capacity" in criminological and criminal justice related research and how it can be used to explain and describe current problems and practices in the American legal system. Limitations of sanctioning criminals due to political, physical space, and resource constraints. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law and Society C7. Criminology, Law and Society, Social Ecology, and Chicano/Latino Studies majors have first consideration for enrollment.

C191 Law and Modernity (4). Lecture, three hours. The rise and spread of Enlightenment legal traditions, social contract theory, individual rights, ideologies of "liberty, equality, fraternity"; contradictions of liberal law, its understandings of "primitive" and "civilized"; pervasive myths of property, difference, race, and rights. Reading- and writing-intensive. Same as Anthropology 127A. (VIII)

C196 Research Seminar in Criminology, Law and Society (4). Seminar, three hours. Special topics research seminar. Content varies with interest of instructor. Capstone research opportunity with Criminology, Law and Society faculty members. Prerequisites: upper-division standing and consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit as topics vary. Criminology, Law and Society and Social Ecology majors have first consideration for enrollment.

GRADUATE

C201 Research Methods (4). An introduction to techniques of inductive methodologies, including qualitative interviewing and participant observation, and deductive methodologies, including survey research and experimental and quasi-experimental design. Provides a sound overview of research methodology with tools to pursue specific methods in greater design. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C207 Development Control Law and Policy (4). Investigates legal and institutional frameworks for development control. Review of constitutional issues implicated in land-use regulation. Traces development control historically and analyzes contemporary approaches to land-use control which reflect environmental and economic development concerns. Prerequisite: graduate standing. Same as Planning, Policy, and Design 207.

C210 Introduction to Criminology, Law and Society (4). Familiarizes students with the interrelated fields of criminology, law and society studies, and criminal justice studies. Organized around three well-established interdisciplinary literatures: criminology, sociolegal studies, and criminal justice studies. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C211 Legal Institutions and Society (4). Acquaints students with the institutions of U.S. legal system and its operations, as well as with the constitutional framework undergirding this system, and defines the relationship between U.S. citizens and government at a variety of levels. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C212 Police, Courts, and Corrections (4). Focuses on basic policy issues in the administration of the criminal justice system. The key elements of the criminal justice system are police, courts, and corrections. Prepares students for continued study of these organizations. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C213 Crime and Social Deviance (4). Examines the major social scientific perspectives on criminal and deviant behavior. Specific deviant and criminal activities are described and explained using established theoretical frameworks. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C214 Research Methods (4) Structures research methodology, the approach to developing and evaluating knowledge of the sciences for use in criminal justice professional activities. Special emphasis on differentiating scientific approaches from pseudo-science. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C215 Applied Statistics (4). Provides a basis for the use of fundamental statistical analysis techniques for solving public policy and management problems through a series of assignments, examinations, and online discussions and demonstrations. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C216 Public Policy, Crime, and Criminal Justice (4). Increases understanding of crime, violence, and the criminal justice system. Assesses the state of knowledge on key policy issues of our time. Discusses the contribution of communities, schools, employment, drugs, guns, and alcohol to crime and violence. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C217 Leadership (4). Introduces concepts, ideas, and theories about leadership and its operation. Explores leadership concepts through interviews with leaders from the community and fellow classmates. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C218 Social Problems, Law, and Policy (4). Capstone course for the M.A.S. program in Criminology, Law and Society. Students choose a social problem related to crime, criminal justice, and law; relate the problem to legal and social issues; and devise a plan of action to research the problem. Open to M.A.S. students only.

C219 Hate Crime (4). Examines the causes, manifestations, and consequences of hate crimes, as well as the larger social context within which they occur, are reacted to, and seem to be proliferating. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C221 Sentencing and Corrections (4). Reviews U.S. attempts to punish and rehabilitate convicted law violators. Conflicts among major purposes of sentencing (rehabilitation, deterrence, incapacitation, and retribution) are discussed, as well as effects of different sanctions on public safety, offender rehabilitation, and justice system costs. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C222 Street Ethnography (4). Focuses on urban street populations, especially gangs, and outlines some of the major conceptual and theoretical issues related to this topic and the processes of street socialization. Methods of inquiry include mapping, ethnohistory, survey questionnaires, and other quantitative techniques. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Same as Chicano/Latino Studies 217.

C224 Organizational Perspectives on the Legal System (4). Familiarizes students with organization theory and research as ways to make sense of, navigate, and act on the legal system. Acquaints students with major frameworks in organization theory and their application to the system of legal organizations. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C225 Consequences of Imprisonment (4). Reviews imprisonment and its consequences in the United States. Views prison and inmates as part of (rather than separate from) society. Examines the effects of prison on American society, the family, the labor market, and the community. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C228 Criminology: Micro Approaches (4). Introduces students to the dominant theories in modern criminology, their theoretical antecedents and extensions, major empirical tests and implications for programs, policy and practice, and focuses on micro-level, individual theories of crime causation. Formerly Criminology, Law and Society C233A.

C229 Criminology: Macro Approaches (4). Introduces students to the dominant theories in modern criminology, their theoretical antecedents and extensions, major empirical tests and implications for programs, policy and practices, and addresses macro-level theories of crime causation. Formerly Criminology, Law and Society C233B.

C230 Crime and Public Policy (4). Discusses the measurement of violent crime; violent offenders and their victims; theoretical explanations of violence; the contribution of the media, drugs, guns, and alcohol to violence; and how the justice system treats and punishes violent offenders. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C232 Juvenile Delinquency (4). Examines the major theoretical perspectives regarding the onset, persistence, and desistance of juvenile delinquency and examines empirical evidence for each perspective. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C234 Anthropology of Law (4). Law has been a key site of anthropological inquiry since the discipline's nineteenth-century origins. Course introduces and critically assesses the contributions anthropology has made to sociolegal lytic trends. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C235 Theories of Crime (4). Examines classical and contemporary theories of crime and crime control with special emphasis on the implications of theory for public and social action. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C236 Gender and Power in Law and Society (4). Focuses on questions of gender and sexuality in law and society studies. Drawing on a variety of theoretical frameworks, especially feminist legal theory, examines social processes and structures related to legal regulation, inequality, and social change. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C237 Legal Reasoning (4). Introduction to law and legal process; use of legal source materials; history and assumptions underlying modern legal reasoning. Key jurisprudential perspectives, development and application of constitutional doctrines (focus on equal protection and right of privacy), and procedure and evidence issues. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C238 White-Collar Crime (4). Examines the illegal behavior of individuals who commit crimes in the course of their employment. Special attention will be paid to ways in which power and organizational structure affect the behavior of the white-collar offenders. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C239A Law and Society I (4). Provides an introduction to the law and society field from its origins in social scientific, legal, and philosophical scholarship during the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early-twentieth centuries. Formerly Criminology, Law, and Society C239.

C239B Law and Society II (4). Building on Law and Society I, addresses contemporary issues in the field from mid-twentieth century to the present with emphasis on the degree to which the field's foundational assumptions are being challenged, refined, or confirmed through current research. Prerequisite: Criminology, Law, and Society C239A.

C241 Race, Ethnicity, and Social Control (4). Origins and organization of racialized social control, with emphasis on criminal justice. Racial politics of criminal/juvenile justice considered in comparative (historical and international) perspective. Exploration of theoretical and methodological issues for research on race, ethnicity, and social control. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Same as Chicano/Latino Studies 221.

C245 Social Science and the Legal Process (4). Examines the use (and misuse) of social science in the legal process, focusing on role of social science evidence in trial and appellate decision making. Test-case litigation in which social science has been used to challenge laws or support reform. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C248 Geographic Information Systems (4). Prepares students to become proficient in the basic GIS functionality including visualization, data management, and spatial analysis. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor.

C252 Issues in Environmental Law and Policy (4). Treatment of legal and policy strategies for promoting environmental protection and deterring environmental degradation within the context of other societal objectives. Topical approach with a focus on problems of special interest to criminologists and to environmental policy specialists. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Same as Planning, Policy, and Design 252.

C255 Public Policy (4). Explores different approaches to public policy analysis, the diverse conceptions of the goals and objectives that should be served by policy, and the appropriate role of the policy analyst. Policy consequences are traced to indirect and subtle incentives and disincentives. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Same as Planning, Policy, and Design 221 and Political Science 221A.

C263 Eyewitness Testimony (4). Examines the evidence that shows that faulty eyewitness memory is the major cause of wrongful convictions. Explores what the legal system thinks of eyewitness testimony and how the legal system has dealt with eyewitness issues. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior P263.

C265 Memory and the Law (4). Examines the controversial topic of repressed memory, or perception and memory of real-world events. Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor. Same as Psychology and Social Behavior P265.

C275 Special Topics in Criminology, Law and Society (4). Topics covered vary with interests of instructor. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit as topics vary.

C296 Doctoral Dissertation Research and Writing (2 to 12). Prerequisite: advancement to candidacy. Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory only. May be repeated for credit.

C298 Directed Studies (2 to 4). Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit.

C299 Independent Study (2 to 8). Prerequisite: graduate standing or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit.